Caribbean Stats

Antigua and Barbuda

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Introduction - Antigua and Barbuda
Background
The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
Geography - Antigua and Barbuda
Location
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates
17 03 N, 61 48 W
Map references
Central America and the Caribbean
Area
total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km) country comparison to the world: 199 land: 442.6 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
Area - comparative
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries
0 km
Coastline
153 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain
mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Elevation extremes
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
Natural resources
NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use
arable land: 18.18% permanent crops: 4.55% other: 77.27% (2005)
Irrigated land
NA
Total renewable water resources
0.1 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total: 0.005 cu km/yr (60%/20%/20%) per capita: 63 cu m/yr (1990)
Natural hazards
hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Environment - current issues
water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor
People - Antigua and Barbuda
Population
85,632 (July 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 197
Age structure
0-14 years: 26.8% (male 11,660/female 11,303) 15-64 years: 66.6% (male 26,597/female 30,414) 65 years and over: 6.6% (male 2,456/female 3,202) (2009 est.)
Median age
total: 29.7 years male: 28.2 years female: 31.1 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate
1.303% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 102
Birth rate
16.59 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 128
Death rate
5.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 164
Net migration rate
2.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 35
Urbanization
urban population: 30% of total population (2008) rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 16.25 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 120 male: 18.76 deaths/1,000 live births female: 13.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 74.76 years country comparison to the world: 88 male: 72.81 years female: 76.81 years (2009 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.07 children born/woman (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 125
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths
NA
Nationality
noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic groups
black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)
Religions
Anglican 25.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Roman Catholic 10.4%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)
Languages
English (official), local dialects
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling total population: 85.8% male: NA female: NA (2003 est.)
Education expenditures
3.9% of GDP (2002) country comparison to the world: 106
Government - Antigua and Barbuda
Country name
conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
Government type
constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a Commonwealth realm
Capital
name: Saint John's geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence
1 November 1981 (from the UK)
National holiday
Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
Constitution
1 November 1981
Legal system
based on English common law
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Representatives - last held 12 March 2009 (next to be held in 2014) election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 50.9%, ALP 47.2%, BPM 1.1%; seats by party - UPP 9, ALP 7, BPM 1
Judicial branch
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court consisting of a High Court of Justice and a Court of Appeal (based in Saint Lucia; two judges of the Supreme Court are residents of the islands and preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); Magistrates' Courts; member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
Political parties and leaders
Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
Political pressure groups and leaders
Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
International organization participation
ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, PetroCaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122 FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225 consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
Flag description
red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band; the sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era, black represents the African heritage of most of the population, blue is for hope, and red is for the dynamism of the people; the "V" stands for victory; the successive yellow, blue, and white coloring is also meant to evoke the country's tourist attractions of sun, sea, and sand
Economy - Antigua and Barbuda
Economy - overview
Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters. Since taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government has adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program, and has been successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from 120% to about 90%. The Antiguan economy experienced solid growth from 2003 to 2007, reaching over 12% in 2006 driven by a construction boom in hotels and housing associated with the Cricket World Cup, but growth dropped off in 2008 with the end of the boom. In 2009, Antigua's economy was severely hit by the global economic crisis, suffering from the collapse of its largest financial institution and a steep decline in tourism. This decline is expected to continue in 2010 as the country struggles with a yawning budget deficit.
GDP (purchasing power parity)
$1.55 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 193 $1.658 billion (2008 est.) $1.613 billion (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)
$1.18 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate
-6.5% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 198 2.8% (2008 est.) 6.9% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$18,100 (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 66 $19,600 (2008 est.) $19,300 (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 3.8% industry: 22% services: 74.3% (2002 est.)
Labor force
30,000 (1991) country comparison to the world: 204
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 7% industry: 11% services: 82% (1983)
Unemployment rate
11% (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 121
Population below poverty line
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget
revenues: $123.7 million expenditures: $145.9 million (2000 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
1.5% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 51
Central bank discount rate
6.5% (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 57 6.5% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
10.43% (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 80 10.44% (31 December 2007)
Stock of money
$296.4 million (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 108 $294.8 million (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money
$939.9 million (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 102 $902 million (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit
$1.13 billion (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 111 $1.002 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture - products
cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Industries
tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Industrial production growth rate
NA%
Electricity - production
110 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 188
Electricity - consumption
102.3 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 189
Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 115
Oil - consumption
5,000 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 165
Oil - exports
219 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 134
Oil - imports
4,690 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 161
Oil - proved reserves
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 209
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 211
Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 211
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 209
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 208
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 207
Current account balance
-$211 million (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 89
Exports
$84.3 million (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 195
Exports - commodities
petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals
Imports
$522.8 million (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 186
Imports - commodities
food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Debt - external
$359.8 million (June 2006) country comparison to the world: 161
Exchange rates
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2007), 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003) note: fixed rate since 1976
Communications - Antigua and Barbuda
Telephones - main lines in use
38,000 (2008) country comparison to the world: 171
Telephones - mobile cellular
136,600 (2008) country comparison to the world: 177
Telephone system
general assessment: NA domestic: good automatic telephone system international: country code - 1-268; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe (2007)
Radio broadcast stations
AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations
2 (1997)
Internet country code
.ag
Internet hosts
7,421 (2009) country comparison to the world: 127
Internet users
65,000 (2008) country comparison to the world: 166
Transportation - Antigua and Barbuda
Airports
3 (2009) country comparison to the world: 190
Airports - with paved runways
total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2009)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2009)
Roadways
total: 1,165 km country comparison to the world: 181 paved: 384 km unpaved: 781 km (2002)
Merchant marine
total: 1,146 country comparison to the world: 7 by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 50, cargo 651, carrier 4, chemical tanker 5, container 392, liquefied gas 12, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 20 foreign-owned: 1,113 (Australia 1, Colombia 2, Cyprus 18, Denmark 19, Estonia 23, France 1, Germany 941, Greece 3, Iceland 12, Italy 1, Latvia 13, Lithuania 5, Netherlands 20, NZ 2, Norway 8, Poland 2, Russia 4, Slovenia 6, Sweden 1, Switzerland 8, Turkey 6, UK 9, US 8) (2008)
Ports and terminals
Saint John's
Military - Antigua and Barbuda
Military branches
Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (2009)
Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49: 19,560 females age 16-49: 18,977 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49: 17,271 females age 16-49: 19,586 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male: 744 female: 743 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures
NA
Transnational Issues - Antigua and Barbuda
Disputes - international
none
Illicit drugs
considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center