Caribbean Stats

Dominican Republic

Flag Location Map
Introduction - Dominican Republic
Background
Explored and claimed by Christopher COLUMBUS on his first voyage in 1492, the island of Hispaniola became a springboard for Spanish conquest of the Caribbean and the American mainland. In 1697, Spain recognized French dominion over the western third of the island, which in 1804 became Haiti. The remainder of the island, by then known as Santo Domingo, sought to gain its own independence in 1821 but was conquered and ruled by the Haitians for 22 years; it finally attained independence as the Dominican Republic in 1844. In 1861, the Dominicans voluntarily returned to the Spanish Empire, but two years later they launched a war that restored independence in 1865. A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative rule followed, capped by the dictatorship of Rafael Leonidas TRUJILLO from 1930-61. Juan BOSCH was elected president in 1962 but was deposed in a military coup in 1963. In 1965, the United States led an intervention in the midst of a civil war sparked by an uprising to restore BOSCH. In 1966, Joaquin BALAGUER defeated BOSCH in an election to become president. BALAGUER maintained a tight grip on power for most of the next 30 years when international reaction to flawed elections forced him to curtail his term in 1996. Since then, regular competitive elections have been held in which opposition candidates have won the presidency. Former President (1996-2000) Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna won election to a second term in 2004 following a constitutional amendment allowing presidents to serve more than one term.
Geography - Dominican Republic
Location
Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti
Geographic coordinates
19 00 N, 70 40 W
Map references
Central America and the Caribbean
Area
total: 48,670 sq km country comparison to the world: 131 land: 48,320 sq km water: 350 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries
total: 360 km border countries: Haiti 360 km
Coastline
1,288 km
Maritime claims
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines territorial sea: 6 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall
Terrain
rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
Elevation extremes
lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m
Natural resources
nickel, bauxite, gold, silver
Land use
arable land: 22.49% permanent crops: 10.26% other: 67.25% (2005)
Irrigated land
2,750 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
21 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total: 3.39 cu km/yr (32%/2%/66%) per capita: 381 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues
water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note
shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti
People - Dominican Republic
Population
9,650,054 (July 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 85
Age structure
0-14 years: 31.4% (male 1,543,141/female 1,488,016) 15-64 years: 62.7% (male 3,087,351/female 2,960,319) 65 years and over: 5.9% (male 264,476/female 306,751) (2009 est.)
Median age
total: 24.9 years male: 24.8 years female: 25.1 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate
1.489% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 90
Birth rate
22.39 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 85
Death rate
5.28 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 179
Net migration rate
-2.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 135
Urbanization
urban population: 69% of total population (2008) rate of urbanization: 2.6% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 25.96 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 83 male: 28 deaths/1,000 live births female: 23.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 73.7 years country comparison to the world: 102 male: 71.88 years female: 75.6 years (2009 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.76 children born/woman (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 81
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
1.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 51
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
62,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 59
HIV/AIDS - deaths
4,100 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 48
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
Nationality
noun: Dominican(s) adjective: Dominican
Ethnic groups
mixed 73%, white 16%, black 11%
Religions
Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Languages
Spanish
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 87% male: 86.8% female: 87.2% (2002 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 12 years male: 12 years female: 13 years (2004)
Education expenditures
3.6% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 126
Government - Dominican Republic
Country name
conventional long form: Dominican Republic conventional short form: The Dominican local long form: Republica Dominicana local short form: La Dominicana
Government type
democratic republic
Capital
name: Santo Domingo geographic coordinates: 18 28 N, 69 54 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
31 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Bahoruco, Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, El Seibo, Elias Pina, Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, San Cristobal, San Jose de Ocoa, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Sanchez Ramirez, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez, Santo Domingo, Valverde
Independence
27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
National holiday
Independence Day, 27 February (1844)
Constitution
28 November 1966; amended 25 July 2002
Legal system
based on French civil codes; Criminal Procedures Code modified in 2004 to include important elements of an accusatory system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age; note - members of the armed forces and national police cannot vote
Executive branch
chief of state: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August 2004); Vice President Rafael ALBURQUERQUE de Castro (since 16 August 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August 2004); Vice President Rafael ALBURQUERQUE de Castro (since 16 August 2004) cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held 16 May 2008 (next to be held in May 2012) election results: Leonel FERNANDEZ reelected president; percent of vote - Leonel FERNANDEZ 53.6%, Miguel VARGAS 41%, Amable ARISTY less than 5%
Legislative branch
bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (32 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Diputados (178 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 16 May 2006 (next to be held in May 2010); House of Representatives - last held 16 May 2006 (next to be held in May 2010) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 22, PRD 6, PRSC 4; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 96, PRD 60, PRSC 22
Judicial branch
Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the National Judicial Council comprised of the president, the leaders of both chambers of congress, the president of the Supreme Court, and an additional non-governing party congressional representative)
Political parties and leaders
Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]; Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Ramon ALBURQUERQUE]; National Progressive Front [Vincent CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Enrique ANTUN]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Citizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania); Collective of Popular Organizations or COP; Foundation for Institution-Building and Justice (FINJUS)
International organization participation
ACP, AOSIS, BCIE, Caricom (observer), FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, PetroCaribe, RG, SICA (associated member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto SALADIN chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280 FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057 consulate(s) general: Anchorage, Boston, Chicago, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), Sun Valley (California)
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador P. Robert FANNIN embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500 telephone: [1] (809) 221-2171 FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437
Flag description
a centered white cross that extends to the edges divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, and the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms featuring a shield supported by an olive branch (left) and a palm branch (right) is at the center of the cross; above the shield a blue ribbon displays the motto, DIOS, PATRIA, LIBERTAD (God, Fatherland, Liberty), and below the shield, REPUBLICA DOMINICANA appears on a red ribbon
Economy - Dominican Republic
Economy - overview
The Dominican Republic has long been viewed primarily as an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, but in recent years the service sector has overtaken agriculture as the economy's largest employer, due to growth in tourism and free trade zones. The economy is highly dependent upon the US, the destination for about two-thirds of exports. Remittances from the US amount to about a tenth of GDP, equivalent to almost half of exports and three-quarters of tourism receipts. The country suffers from marked income inequality; the poorest half of the population receives less than one-fifth of GDP, while the richest 10% enjoys nearly 40% of GDP. High unemployment and underemployment remains an important long-term challenge. The Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) came into force in March 2007, boosting investment and exports and reducing losses to the Asian garment industry. In the middle of 2008, however, the Dominican Republic's economy started slowing after several years of strong GDP growth, as the global recession had a significant negative impact on tourism and remittances. The financial crisis and the US recession caused GDP to dip in 2009, but a rebound is expected in 2010.
GDP (purchasing power parity)
$78.89 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 76 $79.12 billion (2008 est.) $75.14 billion (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)
$44.72 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate
-0.3% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 108 5.3% (2008 est.) 8.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$8,200 (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 118 $8,300 (2008 est.) $8,000 (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 10.5% industry: 21.3% services: 68.2% (2009 est.)
Labor force
4.417 million (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 80
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 14.6% industry: 22.3% services: 63.1% (2005)
Unemployment rate
15.1% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 151 14.1% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line
42.2% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 1.5% highest 10%: 38.7% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
49.9 (2005) country comparison to the world: 26 47.4 (1998)
Investment (gross fixed)
16.6% of GDP (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 131
Budget
revenues: $6.361 billion expenditures: $7.588 billion (2009 est.)
Public debt
41.5% of GDP (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 64 37.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
1.4% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 49 10.6% (2008 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
19.95% (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 39 15.83% (31 December 2007)
Stock of money
$3.619 billion (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 66 $4.074 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money
$5.902 billion (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 67 $5.631 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit
$17.37 billion (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 67 $15.92 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$NA
Agriculture - products
sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, eggs
Industries
tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate
-7% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 125
Electricity - production
14.02 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 82
Electricity - consumption
12.7 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 78
Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 183
Oil - consumption
119,000 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 73
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 193
Oil - imports
116,200 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 63
Oil - proved reserves
0 bbl country comparison to the world: 179
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 190
Natural gas - consumption
470 million cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 95
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 190
Natural gas - imports
470 million cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 60
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 186
Current account balance
-$2.274 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 152 -$4.436 billion (2008 est.)
Exports
$5.372 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 102 $6.95 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities
ferronickel, sugar, gold, silver, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, meats, consumer goods
Exports - partners
US 58.1%, Haiti 9.3%, Netherlands 2.9% (2008)
Imports
$12.14 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 81 $16.1 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities
foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals
Imports - partners
US 39.2%, Venezuela 7.7%, Tawian 5.9%, Mexico 5.4%, Colombia 4.9% (2008)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$2.288 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 91 $2.288 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external
$11.85 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 79 $11.42 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$17.19 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 65 $15.59 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$NA (31 December 2009 est.) $59 million (31 December 2008 est.)
Exchange rates
Dominican pesos (DOP) per US dollar - 36.141 (2009), 34.775 (2008), 33.113 (2007), 33.406 (2006), 30.409 (2005)
Communications - Dominican Republic
Telephones - main lines in use
985,700 (2008) country comparison to the world: 82
Telephones - mobile cellular
7.21 million (2008) country comparison to the world: 70
Telephone system
general assessment: relatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay network domestic: fixed telephone line density is about 10 per 100 persons; multiple providers of mobile cellular service with a subscribership of roughly 75 per 100 persons international: country code - 1-809; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
Radio broadcast stations
AM 120, FM 56, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations
25 (2003)
Internet country code
.do
Internet hosts
280,457 (2009) country comparison to the world: 56
Internet users
2.147 million (2008) country comparison to the world: 68
Transportation - Dominican Republic
Airports
35 (2009) country comparison to the world: 108
Airports - with paved runways
total: 16 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2009)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 19 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 17 (2009)
Railways
total: 1,784 km country comparison to the world: 77 standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 1,368 km 1.076-m, 0.889-m, and 0.762-m gauges note: 1,226 km operated by sugar companies in 1.076 m, 0.889 m, and 0.762-m gauges (2008)
Roadways
total: 19,705 km country comparison to the world: 110 paved: 9,872 km unpaved: 9,833 km (2002)
Merchant marine
total: 1 country comparison to the world: 149 by type: cargo 1 registered in other countries: 1 (Panama 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals
Boca Chica, Caucedo, Puerto Plata, Rio Haina, Santo Domingo
Military - Dominican Republic
Military branches
Army, Navy (Marina de Guerra), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Dominicana, FAD) (2009)
Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)
Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49: 2,440,203 females age 16-49: 2,326,694 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49: 2,056,774 females age 16-49: 1,921,836 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male: 97,766 female: 93,922 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures
0.8% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 147
Transnational Issues - Dominican Republic
Disputes - international
Haitian migrants cross the porous border into the Dominican Republic to find work; illegal migrants from the Dominican Republic cross the Mona Passage each year to Puerto Rico to find better work
Trafficking in persons
current situation: the Dominican Republic is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor; a large number of Dominican women are trafficked into prostitution and sexual exploitation in Western Europe, Australia, Central and South America, and Caribbean destinations; a significant number of women, boys, and girls are trafficked within the country for sexual exploitation and domestic servitude tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - for a second consecutive year, the Dominican Republic is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to show evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking, particularly in terms of not adequately investigating and prosecuting public officials who may be complicit with trafficking activity, and inadequate government efforts to protect trafficking victims; the government has taken measures to reduce demand for commercial sex acts with children through criminal prosecutions (2008)
Illicit drugs
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; has become a transshipment point for ecstasy from the Netherlands and Belgium destined for US and Canada; substantial money laundering activity in particular by Colombian narcotics traffickers; significant amphetamine consumption (2008)