Caribbean Stats

Trinidad and Tobago

Flag Location Map
Introduction - Trinidad and Tobago
Background
First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing. The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.
Geography - Trinidad and Tobago
Location
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates
11 00 N, 61 00 W
Map references
Central America and the Caribbean
Area
total: 5,128 sq km country comparison to the world: 173 land: 5,128 sq km water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries
0 km
Coastline
362 km
Maritime claims
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
Climate
tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain
mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Elevation extremes
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m
Natural resources
petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Land use
arable land: 14.62% permanent crops: 9.16% other: 76.22% (2005)
Irrigated land
40 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
3.8 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total: 0.31 cu km/yr (68%/26%/6%) per capita: 237 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Environment - current issues
water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
People - Trinidad and Tobago
Population
1,229,953 (July 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 155
Age structure
0-14 years: 19.6% (male 123,214/female 117,584) 15-64 years: 72.6% (male 457,868/female 434,486) 65 years and over: 7.9% (male 41,467/female 55,334) (2009 est.)
Median age
total: 32.1 years male: 31.6 years female: 32.7 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate
-0.102% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 213
Birth rate
14.36 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 147
Death rate
8.11 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 105
Net migration rate
-7.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 170
Urbanization
urban population: 13% of total population (2008) rate of urbanization: 2.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 29.93 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 75 male: 31.14 deaths/1,000 live births female: 28.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 70.86 years country comparison to the world: 135 male: 67.98 years female: 73.82 years (2009 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.72 children born/woman (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 168
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
1.5% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 44
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
14,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 89
HIV/AIDS - deaths
1,900 (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 61
Nationality
noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s) adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Ethnic groups
Indian (South Asian) 40%, African 37.5%, mixed 20.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.8% (2000 census)
Religions
Roman Catholic 26%, Hindu 22.5%, Anglican 7.8%, Baptist 7.2%, Pentecostal 6.8%, Muslim 5.8%, Seventh Day Adventist 4%, other Christian 5.8%, other 10.8%, unspecified 1.4%, none 1.9% (2000 census)
Languages
English (official), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98.6% male: 99.1% female: 98% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 11 years male: 11 years female: 11 years (2005)
Education expenditures
4.2% of GDP (2002) country comparison to the world: 100
People - note
in 2007, the government of Trinidad and Tobago estimated the population to be 1.3 million
Government - Trinidad and Tobago
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
Government type
parliamentary democracy
Capital
name: Port-of-Spain geographic coordinates: 10 39 N, 61 31 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
9 regional corporations, 2 city corporations, 3 borough corporations, 1 ward regional corporations: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco city corporations: Port-of-Spain, San Fernando borough corporations: Arima, Chaguanas, Point Fortin ward: Tobago
Independence
31 August 1962 (from the UK)
National holiday
Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Constitution
1 August 1976
Legal system
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President George Maxwell RICHARDS (since 17 March 2003) head of government: Prime Minister Patrick MANNING (since 24 December 2001) cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 February 2008 (next to be held by February 2013); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives election results: George Maxwell RICHARDS reelected president; percent of electoral college vote - NA
Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the President, 6 by the opposition party to serve a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Representatives - last held on 5 November 2007 (next to be held in 2012) election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - PNM 46%, UNC 29.7%; seats by party - PNM 26, UNC 15 note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 12 members serving four-year terms; last election held in January 2005; seats by party - PNM 11, DAC 1
Judicial branch
Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London; member of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ)
Political parties and leaders
Congress of the People [Winston DOOKERAN]; Democratic Action Congress or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES] (only active in Tobago); Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Gerald YETMING] (coalition of NAR, DDPT, MND); Movement for National Development or MND [Garvin NICHOLAS]; National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Dr. Carson CHARLES]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin BAKR]
International organization participation
ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Glenda MOREAN-PHILLIP chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490 FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130 consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Roy L. AUSTIN embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376 FAX: [1] (868) 822-5905
Flag description
red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side
Economy - Trinidad and Tobago
Economy - overview
Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses and has one of the highest growth rates and per capita incomes in Latin America. Economic growth between 2000 and 2007 averaged slightly over 8%, significantly above the regional average of about 3.7% for that same period; however, it has slowed down since then and contracted about 2.7% in 2009. Growth has been fueled by investments in liquefied natural gas (LNG), petrochemicals, and steel. Additional petrochemical, aluminum, and plastics projects are in various stages of planning. Trinidad and Tobago is the leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas, and its economy is heavily dependent upon these resources but it also supplies manufactured goods, notably food and beverages, as well as cement to the Caribbean region. Oil and gas account for about 40% of GDP and 80% of exports, but only 5% of employment. The country is also a regional financial center, and tourism is a growing sector, although it is not as important domestically as it is to many other Caribbean islands. The economy benefits from a growing trade surplus. The MANNING administration has benefited from fiscal surpluses fueled by the dynamic export sector; however, declines in oil and gas prices have reduced government revenues which will challenge his government's commitment to maintaining high levels of public investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity)
$28.65 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 107 $29.44 billion (2008 est.) $28.45 billion (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)
$23 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate
-2.7% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 155 3.5% (2008 est.) 5.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$23,300 (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 54 $23,900 (2008 est.) $23,100 (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 0.5% industry: 59.6% services: 39.9% (2009 est.)
Labor force
629,000 (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 153
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 3.8% manufacturing, mining, and quarrying: 12.8% construction and utilities: 20.4% services: 62.9% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate
7.5% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 75 4.6% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line
17% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Investment (gross fixed)
11% of GDP (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 148
Budget
revenues: $6.176 billion expenditures: $7.415 billion (2009 est.)
Public debt
26.7% of GDP (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 93 26.6% of GDP (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
7.6% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 174 12% (2008 est.)
Central bank discount rate
10.75% (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 40 10% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
12.44% (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 70 11.75% (31 December 2007)
Stock of money
$2.39 billion (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 73 $2.646 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money
$3.506 billion (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 83 $5.707 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit
$3.423 billion (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 92 $3.73 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$12.16 billion (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 69 $15.61 billion (31 December 2007) $15.57 billion (31 December 2006)
Agriculture - products
cocoa, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry
Industries
petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles
Industrial production growth rate
-3.5% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 96
Electricity - production
7.202 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 101
Electricity - consumption
7.034 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 97
Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production
163,300 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 44
Oil - consumption
41,000 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 102
Oil - exports
248,300 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 46
Oil - imports
92,480 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 67
Oil - proved reserves
728.3 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 42
Natural gas - production
39.3 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 21
Natural gas - consumption
21.94 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 33
Natural gas - exports
17.36 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 13
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 131
Natural gas - proved reserves
531.5 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 32
Current account balance
$2.46 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 35 $5.401 billion (2008 est.)
Exports
$10.64 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 79 $15.85 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities
petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, cereal and cereal products, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus fruit, vegetables, flowers
Exports - partners
US 44.8%, Spain 7.8%, Jamaica 7%, Netherlands 7%, Mexico 4.9% (2008)
Imports
$7.449 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 93 $9.788 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities
mineral fuels, lubricants, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals, live animals
Imports - partners
US 26.1%, Brazil 8.6%, Venezuela 7.7%, Colombia 6.1%, Russia 5.3%, China 4% (2008)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$7.506 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 61 $9.496 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external
$2.079 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 130 $3.289 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$102 billion (31 December 2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 33 $12.44 billion (2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$3.829 billion (2007) country comparison to the world: 58
Exchange rates
Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) per US dollar - 6.2993 (2009), 6.2896 (2008), 6.3275 (2007), 6.3107 (2006), 6.2842 (2005)
Communications - Trinidad and Tobago
Telephones - main lines in use
307,000 (2008) country comparison to the world: 115
Telephones - mobile cellular
1.505 million (2008) country comparison to the world: 132
Telephone system
general assessment: excellent international service; good local service domestic: mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 175 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana
Radio broadcast stations
AM 4, FM 18, shortwave 0 (2001)
Television broadcast stations
6 (2005)
Internet country code
.tt
Internet hosts
162,849 (2009) country comparison to the world: 67
Internet users
227,000 (2008) country comparison to the world: 132
Transportation - Trinidad and Tobago
Airports
6 (2009) country comparison to the world: 175
Airports - with paved runways
total: 3 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2009)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (2009)
Pipelines
gas 659 km; oil 336 km (2009)
Roadways
total: 8,320 km country comparison to the world: 140 paved: 4,252 km unpaved: 4,068 km (2000)
Merchant marine
total: 9 country comparison to the world: 118 by type: passenger 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 2 foreign-owned: 1 (US 1) registered in other countries: 2 (Bahamas 1, unknown 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals
Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port-of-Spain
Military - Trinidad and Tobago
Military branches
Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (TTDF): Trinidad and Tobago Army, Coast Guard, Air Guard, Trinidad and Tobago Police Service (2008)
Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49: 301,561 females age 16-49: 264,225 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49: 276,224 females age 16-49: 271,677 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male: 9,183 female: 8,662 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures
0.3% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 169
Transnational Issues - Trinidad and Tobago
Disputes - international
in April 2006, the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a decision that delimited a maritime boundary with Trinidad and Tobago and compelled Barbados to enter a fishing agreement that limited Barbadian fishermen's catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UNCLOS challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has also expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may extend into its waters as well
Illicit drugs
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis